This profession is what makes the students want to study in architecture. But because of the expensive equipment to become a professional architect and intense competition, a lot of architectural graduates fail to become an architect.
The architects often choose this path because it’s easier to make money compared to professional architects. Consultant is a design advisor both in terms of structure and cost.
Because of the wide scoop of architecture, architect can be contractor. Contractor itself works as translator of an architect’s design to make it into a building.
Developer is a multifaceted business, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of improved land or parcels to others. Developers are the coordinators of the activities.
Being a lecture makes an architect gain the most update knowledge and development in the world of architects, where gaining knowledge is their job.
Architect’s ability to present their work and their creativity makes architects is able to work in the marketing area.
Entrepreneur that I mean here is not opening his or her own architectural firm, but opening a material shop, graphic design service, or model maker service and other thing that still have a connection with architecture.
8. Artist or Musician
Architecture is a combination of art and engineering, allowing architect to become an artist or musician. For example, Erwin gutawa, a well-known musician in Indonesia is an architecture graduate.
Architects can turn their knowledge into a book. One architect who became a writer is Imelda Akmal who became a writer from “seri menata rumah.”
Our understanding of composition and lightning make us be able to choose this profession as our other possibility of career.
Architecture is really about creating space. Humans do activities, they have needs and wants. This gives birth to the need of space to accommodate activities to take place. However, space is created through a series of development steps. This is how i perceive those steps:
The first step of creating a space is to find the location, which is where the space is going to be constructed. Usually there are location borders to show the span of the space itself.
The next need for the space will be protection, which is usually represented by walls, to protect from another dangerous living being or danger on the ground. There is also a concept of roofing to protect from the rain and any other possible danger from above.
It will be natural to add doors and also windows so people, natural lighting, and air flow can have some access to the space within the protection boundaries. The roof of the model is also averted to the other side to show that there is also a possible room for creativity and it is possible to find newer, better ways to use the elements of protection in creating a space.
The more advanced, the more needs. A space needs to give a sense of security, both physically and also mentally. The psychological security would be privacy, and hence a series of fences is added to the space borders. The front part is left open to show welcoming approach to the close neighborhood, like the houses in small, traditional villages.
A space can only function as a space when it is able to accommodate the intended activities inside. Activities are done by people inside the space, leaving a trail of memory and therefore life. The space inside the house would be a positive space, where comfort can be achieved.
When all the needs are taken care of, there is a room for wants, including the need to show individuality. Individuality is represented by different colours and also new additional boundaries to create negative space, where activities can be done freely without any directed or intended purposes. Extra fence is also added with a person outside, showing the extra need for privacy in a more technologically advanced society such as in the big cities that we have today.
Hence, space starts with nothingness and ends with the existence of activities, and therefore life, in it. It is very important that the space we create can actually accommodate the intended activities while giving the best possible chance for the user or inhabitants to use it properly, that is, to live in it.
This chapter looks at the future of applying cradle to cradle methodology and the possible optimistic outcomes. The chapter uses the example of the Rouge, Ford Motor Company manufacturing plant, whose current chairman William Clay Ford Jr. has taken on the immense burden of re-designing the entire plant to meet not only a modern car market but also using the opportunity to ensure that social and environmental concerns are explored at an early stage so that they become forces that help postively shape the entire manufacturing process at every scale and for all participants. The chapter goes further to show how currently the practice is simply to substitute, take an existing process or “recipe” and evaluate each ingredient in order to substitute less bad materials while trying to maintain the valued characteristics of the former recipe. This method is flawed because it is inherently conflicting and shortsighted in so far as it leaves no room for completly original ideas. A better method the chapter argues is to start at the beginning with an open-ended question such as what do i want to achieve. Rather, in the case of Ford, instead of asking how can i make the car better, ask how can we create efficient transportation for the modern world. Therefore the designers are not rooted or handicapped by outdated idealogy and can freely respond to contemporary social, environmental, resource, market, etc. conditions to make the best solution possible now.
Five guiding Principals:
1) Signal your intention, “commit to a new paradigm, rather than to an incremental improvement of the old.”
2) Restore, “strive for good growth, not just economic growth”
3) Be ready to innovate further, “remember that perfection of an existing product is not necessarily the best investment..”
4) Understand and prepare for the learning curve, “change is difficult, messy, and takes extra materials and time.”
5) Exert intergenerational responsibility.
The last principal and the end of the chapter focuses on the value of ownership. with some beautiful logic in the form of a quote from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, “The earth belongs….to the living…” Meaning contemporary generations should not create debt of any form to be paid by succeeding generations.
by Tandhika Excellentio Yochanan
by : Sheiren Felicia Jaya – 1006717691
What kind of architectural design for the future?
Urban development is increasingly so massive. Our world makes the architects start to think when they are going to creating buildings that overcome with the limitations of space, energy resources, limited food and clean water,and also few place which provide comfortable rest and recreation. There are nine progessive building design about the future of architecture, but I want to give the information just four designs of them, because im afraid when I spend a lot of space to explain all information more deeply. It is so hard to get a lot of information, because in many sources, they just give general information of that.
Related to eco-efficient and eco-effectiveness, An architect, Vincent Vallebaut has made a great design for our sustainability.
- Dragonfly Vertical Farm for Future New York
Vicent designer Vallebaut create extraordinary designs to synergize the resources of food, shelter, and energy sources in the future. Dragonfly (dragonfly) is the concept of urban agriculture and dragonfly wing design to provide a source of local fresh food in an urban environment. The facilities are research labs, housing, and community areas and its located and separated between orchards, farms, and production rooms. Plant and animal farming is used to maintain soil and nutrient levels, and also the important one is reusing of biowaste. Dragonfly is made from steel as the main material.
This farm can minimize the problems of food mileage and shortage, and reconnect consumers with producers.
Urban farming is a best plantation for urban developing.
There are 132 floors and 600 vertical meters, and Dragonfly can accommodate 28 different agricultural fields for the production of fruit, vegetables, grains, meat and dairy. The combination of solar energy makes 100%efficiency.
Designed by San Francisco-based designer Joanna Borek-Clement, the Sky-Terra skyscrapers is a neuron of networking towers. The function of this building is for urban desigm
This structure includes city, apartment, park, and recreational space but it is still consider to the green living.
The ‘Sky-Terra skyscrapers’ was designed by Tokyo because they have won the general competition.
The high of tower is 1600ft, spreading green areas to get time for relaxing and outdoor activity.
Another sustainable element is the transportation system of interconnected foot paths and 4-foot wide streets used for bikes or small electric cars. An elevator used for interconnection between floors.
Then there is the wind and weather factor when you’re up top. But the Sky-Terra buildings were designed for already-clogged cities like Tokyo, and these cities, some green space, direct sunlight, and fresh air are better.
The Sky-Terra towers are indeed a nice concept for urban areas, but don’t you think it will make life really boring for those on the ground level?
3. My Dream, Our Vision by Design Act
Kay Ngee Tan Architects and partners were designed this concept.
The pavilion is made of an illuminated digital cloud hovering over an ever-changing green pasture. They combine two situations between dark and light by giving audio feeds, and catapults for the bright
it is made of 3866 transparant cubes with different size . It gives good imagination that dreams can be reality in our life.
For singapore, basically its about transformation that dream can be a reality.
Here, the emphasis is on human interactions and connections as the city’s driving force, and giving them sustainable life by combining all elements but in high technology. Its designed likes cloud on the sky with various dream-like qualities.
It has three levels: a sub-level (basement), a ground-level Plaza, and a mezzanine level inside the Pavilions cloud-crown.
It will contain 8 separate chambers of experience,tell the singapore history: The Tunnel – in a journey through the city’s hidden side The Dream Maker – collective dream-making Transition through Cloud – and through a sequence of collected dreams
Dream Register – multi-media/sensory interpretation of Singaporean’s dreams
Wishing Tunnel – visitors share their dreams with the world Dream-harvester
Space Warper – disorientates to transit between dream and reality
Green Pasture – the green pasture
4. NO Man’s Land : design to scuffle water woes in Dead Sea
Thats why we need an architect to answer this question, , how can architects engage in these complex dynamics and decision-making processes?
EcoFactor: No Man’s Land is truly revolutionary. The function of this planned building is to give more drinking water to residents in Dead Sea region. Its launced by New York, based on Phu Hoang company.
No man’s land generate a variety of building technology and will extract water molecules from the air to be desalinated, ending the extinction of fresh water near the Dead Sea. The part of this structure are Salinity gradient solar ponds, water purification tanks, and water filtering processes. The design also provides for tourist and solar energy conservation too.
Desalinating water in the saltiest water is necessary, so people who live at there can consume mineral water. I personally think that an architectural structure with so much potential should definitely become a reality in the coming years
Expressionism in Architecture
by Cesario Dwi Yoniarto (0906645035)
Expressionism is the way of expressing something in and around something that you feel emotionally, from all the things that happen phenomenally. This is one of the movements in architecture in the 20th century, mainly in Europe, where at that time people fought in the World War I, including the architects at that time. The political and social problems also influence the architect, such places like Germany, Austria, and Denmark. Many famous architects are involved in this movement, such as , Bruno Taut, Erich Mendelsohn, Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe and Hans Poelzig.
The characteristics of the expressionist architecture forms in something more gothic rather than classic, which resulted in forms and shapes that are individualistic from the other forms of architecture around that time, its detachment to realism and more to a symbolic form from conceptual representation. The representation of the forms and shapes are from the emotional feeling that the architects feel, a more bold way of showing what they feel, a more frontal way by showing forms in their buildings.
Materials used in this movement of architecture the representation first rather than function, materials which have a poetic expression, and to unify the buildings into making it a monolithic design. Bricks, steel and especially glass is used, according to Paul Scheerbart “Coloured glass destroys hatred”,”Without a glass palace life is a burden”,”Glass brings us a new era, building in brick only does us harm”- inscriptions on the 1914 Werkbund Glass Pavilion.
This kind of movement, inspires many others and the legacy continues until now. Art deco and Neo Expressionism is one of the branch of expressionst architecture from the past. Such architects like Frank Gehry, developed architecture from the sense of expressionism, being individualistic from the other surroundings, expressing emotional values.
What is the point of expressionism?
To express emotionally, to publish to the world and let them know what we feel in a symbolic and poetic way.
Through out the centuries people have found their ways to a big city. They migrate from their small villages with their belongings and family, hoping for the best when they arrived in that particular big city. Some might have a prosperous live, but for some will have it hard. Even though they both started the same way form nothing into something. Their fate is on their own hands, especially with the competition of others. Competition is not the only thing they have to worry about. Finance will be the main element of survival, no matter where ones live or from what part of the world ones came from all human have their needs. Based on the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, man has their basic needs for which is known as survival. The basic survival for a human kind is to find food and shelter. This is the base of the Maslow pyramids of hierarchy, if a person is not able to fill this need they will not be able to proceed to the next step of living. In Indonesia this problem could be seen everywhere especially in a big city like Jakarta.
Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia, a city of thousands dreams, a melting pot where many ethnics from different parts of Indonesia could be found in this place. However due to the fact of massive migrations the government did not respond to it fast enough. This reaction has created chaos for many migrants who were not ready to stand the living standard of Jakarta. Based on the data taken from Demographic profile of DKI Jakarta has predicted that in 2015
There will be around 9.929.911 souls living in Jakarta which consist of 4.918.956 male populations and 5.010.955 female populations. With the area of 662.33 km2 it has the density of 149 people / km2 that lived in Jakarta.
This density become a main problem in Jakarta, for which most of that dense area are the slums area and for some of the family who lived in that area still believe that more children means more prosper and that motto have lead them to have more children than they supposed to be. In most of the world slums area or the ghetto are the unhealthiest area in that part of the city. Most of the slums area could be found under the bridges, on the banks of the rivers, or on the sides of a rail way and those houses have created many problems. Most of the problems that could be found in such area are bad sanitations which lead to various kinds of disease, not to forget the crime rate that increases through the area. Slums and ghetto cannot be taken apart from those two main problems no matter where they are.
Back in 1850 Paris was one of the densest populated places in all of France. After the French revolution many people migrate from the rural area to this urban area for the same reason since the beginning or men. Due to the lack of regulations and area many houses is build close to each other and they also have a bad sewage system which leads them to the one the worst disease that have known to man known as the black plague. However France was lucky to have a strong leader that is willing to help their people and make a better living for them it was no other than Napoleon Bonaparte III. Napoleon Bonaparte III have appointed an engineer Georges-Eugene Haussmann or known as Baron Haussmann are the one that have change the face of Paris as the world have known today.
The process of rebuilding and renovating Paris was not an easy job. It will not be so easy if He did not get the help from Napoleon Bonaparte III. The way Haussmann works with Paris is rather radical because he use force and with force he is able to destroy the slums and create new buildings that will be later be used by those people who used to live there. He destroys all the unnecessary buildings or any narrow winding streets and especially any sign that showed poverty. His goal was to modernize the city of Paris. With this goal he is able to introduce a new style of buildings that is known as the Haussmann-style buildings that have five to seven floors that will be enough to accommodate many Parisian.
Although Haussmann did a great job, his job was rather ruthless and barbaric in order for him to get everything done. However force is not the only way to solve the problem of slums or ghetto area. In Kota Baru, sub district of Gondokusuman in Yogyakarta. A noble man has help to recreate the area becoming a symbolic place near the code river. His name was Romo Mangun; he was a bishop before he becomes an architect. His purpose of becoming an architect was intended to help people in need. Kampung Code was the area where he was working on it was one of the untouchable communities that the government has a hard time dealing with. However with the love and caring passion Romo Mangun helps those people whose houses were about to be destroyed because of the bad influence and it was not a really good sight to be looked at. Romo Mangun has created a beautiful colorful harmony with the environment and the houses that were built in that area. He gave a touch of traditional architecture, parks, and he also gave an educations to the locals how they were able to take care of their living space.
Solving an urban area such as slums and ghetto will become the main concern for the new generations of architects especially when Jakarta itself will be dealing with more migrations and the lack of open space. However destroying and rebuilding a slum area will be hard especially when one are dealing with a place of living. There is two options that can be approached one is the way that Haussmann did, a radical change, which deals with a lot of force in order to get everything done and create a beautiful place like Paris. Or a soft power that was used by Romo Mangun that have beautified the ghetto area in Kali Code, which now have a touch of harmony and architecture. Both of this approach will create a big change in the community. As an architect ones will deal not only with a design but also with the people itself. Because the main point of an architect is how they were able to accommodate people that lives in that certain area no matter what approach one will make the result needs to be good enough for everyone to enjoy.
It is up to us the next generation architect who will execute and make the right decision for the better generation of housing.
by Tandhika Excellentio Yochanan
These are the six competing logics of sustainable architecture,
Description : Technocentric approach, science and technology can solve environmental issues.
Method : Through rational analysis and management of the environment.
Definition of sustainable architecture according to this logic : Energy sufficient architecture, the development of technology to create energy-efficient built environment.
How? The usage of translucent insulation, new types of glass and solar shading, intelli- gent facades, double-skin walls and roofs, and photovoltaics. Energy efficient lighting, passive solar design and daylighting, the use of natural and mixed-mode ventilation, more efficient air condi- tioning and comfort cooling, combined with sophisticated energy management systems are all part of the High-Tech approach.
Description : Natural approach, building is against the nature.
Method : Reducing ecological footprint.
Definition of sustainable architecture according to this logic : Zero ecological footprint, natural buldings came from natural materials. Building can be a part of nature itself.
How? In terms of building materials, preference is for renewable, natural materials such as earth, timber, and straw combined with a reduction of the use of virgin building materials through reuse and recycling.
Description : Here the role of sustainable architecture is metaphorical and, as an iconic expression of societal values, it should act to inspire and convey an increasing identification with nature and the nonhuman world, what is required is a “new language in the building arts.
Method : Shifting the paradigm of the society to new age-ism ,a sensuous and aesthetic society.
Definition of sustainable architecture according to this logic : A sensuous, stylish,creative “Green Architecture”
How? A move back towards organicism, expressionism, the chaotic, and the non- linear is the “aesthetic . . . growing out of this new world view; a language of building and design close to nature, of twists and folds and undulations; of crystalline forms and fractured planes.”
Description : Eco cultural logic emphasizes sustainable architecture as preservation of culture.
Method : Preserving culture
Definition of sustainable architecture according to this logic : Within this logic it is suggested that sustainable architectural approaches should move away from universal and technologically based design methodologies as these often fail to coincide with the cultural values of a particular place or people.
How? The eco-cultural logic emphasizes both the preservation and conservation of the variety of built cultural archetypes that already exist, combined with a concern for cultural continuity expressed through the trans- formation and reuse of traditional construction techniques, build- ing typologies, and settlement patterns, each with a history of local evolution and use.
Description : This logic utilizes a medical rhetoric to focus attention on the adverse impacts of the built environment and the causes of stress that engender health problems, both physical and psychological.
Method : Designing healthy system of housing and architecture
Definition of sustainable architecture according to this logic : The creation of “healing environment”,sustainable buildings which supports the healthy lifestyle of the people.
How? The use of natural and tactile materials and traditional build- ing methods utilizing organic treatments and finishes, natural light and ventilation, and the use of color to promote health.
Description : The eco-social logic extends the social agenda of sustainability beyond a concern for the individual to encompass a political discourse that suggests that the root cause of the ecological crisis stems from wider social factors. It addresses the emblematic issue of democracy as the key to an ecological society.
Method : Participation of the people
Definition of sustainable architecture according to this logic : A building that embody the spirit of the society, freedom, and togetherness.
How? The aim throughout is to construct appropriate, flexible, and participatory buildings that serve the needs of occupiers without im- pacting on the environment unnecessarily by using renewable natu- ral, recycled, and wherever possible, local materials.
What do you think about these logics? Which one do you think is the most effective to solve the lack of sustainability in Indonesia? Share your opinion.
Guy, S. & Graham Farmer, ‘ Reinterpreting Sustainable Architecture,’ op. cit., 2001, pp. 140-148