Let`s learn from Curitiba City !
by Mariyam Yasmin (1006717640)
Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Parana. In 1970`s, Curitiba is listed as one of the city of slum, which also has the worst traffic jam`s issue among all cities in America Latin. It also had other environmental issues like; flood, over population, transportation, etc. The issues that this city was having actually almost the same as what our capital city, Jakarta has now.
But now, the city has become one of the most beautiful and well-organized city in Brazil, even in the world. In 1996, Curitiba was awarded as one of the most innovative city in the world. According to the American magazine Reader`s Digest, Curitiba is the best place to live in Brazil[i].
How come the city that was becomes one of the worst city could become the most innovative city and the best place to live within only 20 years?
One of the Architect from Federal Parana University, Jaime Lerner[ii], changes the city`s planning fundamentally. The first step of the change was changing the concept of the urban design which was centered become linear. The buildings that are crucial for the city, like government buildings, commercial buildings, education, or business placed in one site, while the residences placed surrounding it. These changes also affect the transportation system of the city. For the transportation, Curitiba use the “trinary road system”[iii], this system use two wide road which has opposite direction, but the special thing about this road`s system is, in the middle of the road it has the road used only for the bus way. The architects also build up the route to connect the residences directly to the center of the city. Now, Curitiba`s main transportation is the Bus, or what we usually called as Busway. There are 12 terminals in Curitiba, spread all over the city. Curitiba also has 150 km pathway for bicycles. And these transportation systems become the superiority of the city. This transportation system actually made to decrease the use of private transportation, and to solve the traffic jam issues. They also put over 200 radars among the city to detect the car that run over the speed limits. The speed limits maybe a bit “unacceptable”, which are 60km/h or 40km/h, this must become the reason why people would choose to use busses or walk, than ride their own cars.
Transportation System, Busway[iv]
The Bus Shelter in Curitiba[v]
To solve another environmental issue of the city, which is flood, Curitiba double their Green Open Space area. Now, its green open space reach more than 30% of the city`s area. They do everything it takes to enlarge it, they use the ex-landfill, build up artificial lakes in the middle of the city, etc. At the same time, they also build commercial buildings, but both development support each other and create a sustainable city`s condition.
Parks in Curitiba[vii]
Besides solving the other two main environmental issues of the city which are; traffic jam and flood, Curitiba also successfully, radically diminish the slums area all over the city. The government uses a smart incentives strategy to relocate the slums area, not just displacing it with no compassion, like other city would do. One of the things they did was make a rule for the residence developer that if they want to build up a residence, they have to build houses for slums resident first. This method is really effective, we should learn from Curitiba to make a better Jakarta.
Slums area in Curitiba[viii]. It is still better compared to another cities’ slums area.
Project to re-build slums housing area in Curitiba[ix]
To keep the city clean, the government asks the poor citizen to collect garbages, which could be exchanged with; milk, eggs, or buss tickets, how smart and genius is that method! This strategy also gives a good impact to the citizen productivity. In 1970`s per capita income in Curitiba was under the standard of the per capita income in Brazil, but now, their income is twice higher than the national per capita income. Now, even the poor already got free medical facilities. Curitiba is now named as the ecological urban.
Hopefully our capital city, Jakarta, could follow what Curitiba did, and in the next 20 years, or even less, we can hear news all over the world about; Jakarta, The Most Sustainable, Innovative, and the best City in The World! And hopefully, we, as an architecture students, could become the next generation who can realize that, and make Indonesia (Jakarta specifically) become a better place to live.
[ii] Maulidy, Ardy. “Belajar Dari Kota Curitiba:Penerapan Kota Ekologis”, 30 March 2011. < http://jepits.wordpress.com/2007/12/19/belajar-dari-kota-curitiba-penerapan-kota-ekologis/>
[iii] Vaz, Maria. “Curitiba Transportation”, 30 March 2011. < http://www.mariavazphoto.com/curitiba_pages/curitiba_trans.html>
[iv] Inhabitat. “Transportation Tuesday”, 30 March 2011. < http://inhabitat.com/transporation-tuesday-curitiba/curitiba-public-transportation-systems-great-public-transit-mass-transit-brazil-mass-transit-public-transportation-transportation-tuesday-sustainable-transit/>
[v] Asya. “Transport System, Curitiba, Brazil”, 30 March 2011. < http://www.wayfaring.info/2010/01/29/transport-system-curitiba-brazil/
[vi] Harrison, Ian. “Top 20 Green Cities in The World Part II”, 30 March 2011. < http://blog.ratestogo.com/top-20-green-cities-in-the-world-ii/>
[vii] Travel To Parana. “A Green City:Parks in Curitiba, Brazil”, 30 March 2011. < http://traveltoparana.wordpress.com/2009/12/18/a-green-city-parks-in-curitiba-brazil/>