Resolving Urban Problem from Architects Point of View
Through out the centuries people have found their ways to a big city. They migrate from their small villages with their belongings and family, hoping for the best when they arrived in that particular big city. Some might have a prosperous live, but for some will have it hard. Even though they both started the same way form nothing into something. Their fate is on their own hands, especially with the competition of others. Competition is not the only thing they have to worry about. Finance will be the main element of survival, no matter where ones live or from what part of the world ones came from all human have their needs. Based on the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs, man has their basic needs for which is known as survival. The basic survival for a human kind is to find food and shelter. This is the base of the Maslow pyramids of hierarchy, if a person is not able to fill this need they will not be able to proceed to the next step of living. In Indonesia this problem could be seen everywhere especially in a big city like Jakarta.
Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia, a city of thousands dreams, a melting pot where many ethnics from different parts of Indonesia could be found in this place. However due to the fact of massive migrations the government did not respond to it fast enough. This reaction has created chaos for many migrants who were not ready to stand the living standard of Jakarta. Based on the data taken from Demographic profile of DKI Jakarta has predicted that in 2015
There will be around 9.929.911 souls living in Jakarta which consist of 4.918.956 male populations and 5.010.955 female populations. With the area of 662.33 km2 it has the density of 149 people / km2 that lived in Jakarta.
This density become a main problem in Jakarta, for which most of that dense area are the slums area and for some of the family who lived in that area still believe that more children means more prosper and that motto have lead them to have more children than they supposed to be. In most of the world slums area or the ghetto are the unhealthiest area in that part of the city. Most of the slums area could be found under the bridges, on the banks of the rivers, or on the sides of a rail way and those houses have created many problems. Most of the problems that could be found in such area are bad sanitations which lead to various kinds of disease, not to forget the crime rate that increases through the area. Slums and ghetto cannot be taken apart from those two main problems no matter where they are.
Back in 1850 Paris was one of the densest populated places in all of France. After the French revolution many people migrate from the rural area to this urban area for the same reason since the beginning or men. Due to the lack of regulations and area many houses is build close to each other and they also have a bad sewage system which leads them to the one the worst disease that have known to man known as the black plague. However France was lucky to have a strong leader that is willing to help their people and make a better living for them it was no other than Napoleon Bonaparte III. Napoleon Bonaparte III have appointed an engineer Georges-Eugene Haussmann or known as Baron Haussmann are the one that have change the face of Paris as the world have known today.
The process of rebuilding and renovating Paris was not an easy job. It will not be so easy if He did not get the help from Napoleon Bonaparte III. The way Haussmann works with Paris is rather radical because he use force and with force he is able to destroy the slums and create new buildings that will be later be used by those people who used to live there. He destroys all the unnecessary buildings or any narrow winding streets and especially any sign that showed poverty. His goal was to modernize the city of Paris. With this goal he is able to introduce a new style of buildings that is known as the Haussmann-style buildings that have five to seven floors that will be enough to accommodate many Parisian.
Although Haussmann did a great job, his job was rather ruthless and barbaric in order for him to get everything done. However force is not the only way to solve the problem of slums or ghetto area. In Kota Baru, sub district of Gondokusuman in Yogyakarta. A noble man has help to recreate the area becoming a symbolic place near the code river. His name was Romo Mangun; he was a bishop before he becomes an architect. His purpose of becoming an architect was intended to help people in need. Kampung Code was the area where he was working on it was one of the untouchable communities that the government has a hard time dealing with. However with the love and caring passion Romo Mangun helps those people whose houses were about to be destroyed because of the bad influence and it was not a really good sight to be looked at. Romo Mangun has created a beautiful colorful harmony with the environment and the houses that were built in that area. He gave a touch of traditional architecture, parks, and he also gave an educations to the locals how they were able to take care of their living space.
Solving an urban area such as slums and ghetto will become the main concern for the new generations of architects especially when Jakarta itself will be dealing with more migrations and the lack of open space. However destroying and rebuilding a slum area will be hard especially when one are dealing with a place of living. There is two options that can be approached one is the way that Haussmann did, a radical change, which deals with a lot of force in order to get everything done and create a beautiful place like Paris. Or a soft power that was used by Romo Mangun that have beautified the ghetto area in Kali Code, which now have a touch of harmony and architecture. Both of this approach will create a big change in the community. As an architect ones will deal not only with a design but also with the people itself. Because the main point of an architect is how they were able to accommodate people that lives in that certain area no matter what approach one will make the result needs to be good enough for everyone to enjoy.
It is up to us the next generation architect who will execute and make the right decision for the better generation of housing.
by Tandhika Excellentio Yochanan